The Schengen Agreement (named after the village Schengen, a village directly on the three border point of Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg, where it was signed), as far as travellers are concerned, basically dissolves border checks when travelling between member countries.
EU, EEA and Swiss citizens enjoy the freedom of movement within the Schengen Area - which means that they can live and work without restrictions.
All other nationals are divided into two categories - Annex I and Annex II. Annex I includes countries such as China, India, Russia and South Africa; Annex II includes Australia, Brazil, Canada, Japan, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and the United States. For a full list, visit click here.
Annex I nationals need a visa to enter the Schengen Area.
Annex II nationals need a visa to enter the Schengen Area, unless they qualify for a visa exemption. All Annex II nationals can enter the Schengen Area as a whole visa-exempt for up to 90 days in a 180 day period. New Zealand citizens can stay visa-exempt for up to 90 days in each of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland without reference to time spent in other Schengen countries, but if they wish to travel to other Schengen countries, the normal 90 day every 180 days visa exemption period applies.
Therefore, the Schengen Agreement will reveal to be a hassle for non-EU passport holders who are Annex II nationals (except for New Zealanders), because whilst previously travellers such as Americans, Australians and Canadians could spend up to 3 months visa-free in each European country, now the 3 month visa exemption applies to the Schengen Area (most of Europe) as a whole. Hence, for foreign travellers such as Canadian, US and Australian passport holders, the remaining options will be to cross to the United Kingdom/Ireland or go down to the Balkans, the Ukraine, to Turkey or to Morocco once nearing the end of their 90 days limit within Schengen and staying away for 90 days before re-entering a Schengen country. The UK border is probably the worst of these options in terms of chances of being sent away or denied entry.
Notice that sometimes within Schengen borders, especially while going along by train, policemen do come on board and ask to see your documents. Usually it's trouble-free, but they tend to harass Balkans and Turks more often than others.
28 European states have signed the agreement, including most European countries and three non-EU countries (Iceland, Norway, Switzerland). Ireland and the United Kingdom did not sign the treaty. 24 of these countries have implemented the agreement so far.
- Czech Republic
- Cyprus, dependent on resolution of Cyprus conflict