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Turkmenistan (also Turkmenia) is a country in Central Asia.
The only way to visit Turkmenistan independently is on a transit visa limited to 4 or 5 days. Most travelers get a transit visa traveling between Iran and Uzbekistan (and vice-versa) or Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan (and vice-versa), although other combinations are theoretically possible (between Kazakhstan and Afghanistan for example).
Transit visas are pretty straightforward to obtain provided you already have the visas for both the countries before and after Turkmenistan, and take 10 to 20 days to be issued. Dates and entry point are fixed but you can leave the country at any exit point, even if a specific border post is written.
Coming from Iran, the best place to apply is Tehran (visa collection possible at the consulate in Mashad). Coming the other way, getting a visa in Tashkent is possible but not the best place in Central Asia as the embassy can be very busy (arrive early !), process takes more than 20 days and you will have to travel back to Tashkent to collect your visa. Dushanbe is a rather better option as process can take as little as a week and employees are more friendly.
Note than in theory it is possible to apply in Dushanbe and collect the visa in Tashkent a few days later.
It is also possible to apply by mail at a Turkmen embassy in an European country. It takes around 10 days for the embassy to send you by email an invitation that, according to them, allow to get the transit visa upon arrival. This option is particularly interesting for travelers arriving in Turkmenbashi by ferry from Baku, as arrival date is never certain (ferries do not make the crossing everyday). However, it may not be a guaranteed service at land crossings. To be on the safe side, collect your visa in any Turkmen embassy (Tashkent for example) in one day by presenting the invitation. Transit visa costs 55$ and invitation is free.
On arrival you will also have to pay an extra fee depending on your nationality (12$ for EU citizens)
All border controls operate from 08:00 to 17:00.