Myanmar, or Burma, is a country in South-Eastern Asia. Although most people (and especially the stupid "Loney Planet Myanmar" book) connect Myanmar only with its bad government, this is not the whole story and should not be the only fact to focus on. Rather it is much more worth seeing Myanmar how it really is: A beautiful country, with hospitable and friendly people and an incredible rich culture. This country has so much to give, it is awesome.
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2019: There are still conflicts around Myanmar and travel restrictions to many areas. Be sure to check whether your intended road is allowed for foreigners, or you might put locals at risk by hitching a ride from them in a prohibited area. DON’T accidentally enter from Thailand into Tachileik: That areas is surrounded by prohibited areas on all sides and from there you cannot access the rest of Myanmar any other way than overpriced (100 USD I think) plane.
BORDERS 2020: Bangladesh: not crossable for foreigners. India: crossable in 2018 and 19 but situation can change quickly. Laos: somehow crossable but not easy. China: generally not crossable unless you get into contact with agencies on both sides before you try. It's not good for spontaneous decisions. Thailand: easily crossable in three places (North to south: Tachileik, Mae Sot, and Kawthaung. The Htee Khee border near Dawei is exit-only). As mentioned earlier, Tachileik is only really usable as a visa-run border to return to Thailand and not for continuing overland travel inside Myanmar.
Hitchhiking in general
(Hitchhiking in Myanmar might be technically illegal for foreigners, someone please confirm or debunk this.) Hitch-hiking in Myanmar is not that difficult, if you know how to do it. First of all, forget about the European way raising your thumb. As in almost all non-Western countries, raising your thumb will not be understood as anything but an odd gesture. Try other ways using body language for instance by waving at the drivers and signalling them to stop, or by waving and pointing in the direction you're going. You need to communicate with the driver in the few seconds you have while he sees you. Once you learn this, you will get rides in no time.
The potential for a great country for hitchhiking is definitely there. The people are very interested in foreigners, the roads are big and provide plenty of space to stand, traffic is very slow, there are a lot of pick-up trucks which are perfect for hitchhikers (there is always some free space) and there are so many different old, funny and exciting vehicles on the road, that it could be great fun for a hitchhiker to get all these different lifts. It is very easy to get attention as a foreigner and you will get a lot of reactions, most of the time very friendly ones. You might also get lifts with people that just come around and talk to you and decide to give you a ride after you told them where you are going.
Hitch-hiking in Myanmar might seem difficult at first. You will face some trouble that can make it seem completely impossible. Here is a list of things you should be prepared for:
- People won't understand what you are doing: If you are white, you should be rich and for sure you have enough money for the bus or a taxi.
- Holding up a hitchhiking sign (in Myanma script) helps tremendously with communicating what it is you're doing. Even without knowing the concept of hitchhiking, people understand you're asking to travel to the place on your sign.
- This is usually not the case, but some people might be afraid about getting in trouble with the government, when they pick you up. I does not mean that the Burmese people are afraid of getting in contact with foreigners, but some will tell you this reason if you ask them about difficulties with hitchhiking.
- Many pick-up trucks are considered to be short-distance buses. Of course they will be delighted to pick you up, but make sure about the payment first.
- Cars with red number plates are taxies. Don't get on one by mistake, since many taxies are otherwise unmarked, and drivers are often very nice and may not even mention a price until the end of your trip.
- The people are too friendly. Some of you might know this situations where you are somewhere in a fucked up place, nobody is stopping, which is bad and after a while people gather around you because they want to know where you are from and what are you doing. This is also the situation in Myanmar, but here you can add that despite all this things the people also try to help you, which makes the whole situation even worse, because they don't understand hitchhiking. With 10 people around you it is hard to stop a car and there you might have the situation that a car finally stops, you jump on and just want to leave and the driver starts to talk to the people on the street about you. They just want to help, but in the end the driver is so confused, that he refuses you and you are again with your buddies on the street. To avoid this, make sure to travel from one town/city to another, but always start hitch-hiking a little outside the cities.
Brand New Myanmar Express Highway
Myanmar hitchhiking is like heaven and hell. Here comes the heaven. Between Mandalay and Yangon is a brand new express-way since December 2010. They put much effort in this project. It was the third time after the fifties and the seventies, that they tried to build this road and finally it worked with Chinese support. Now they did it and it is one of the the greatest an easiest roads you can hitchhike. It is not really a challenge, good for beginners and a nice trip. A lot of cars drive the whole route between the two biggest cities, so you can jump on and off where ever you want. There is no confusion about what you do, because there are no taxis on this highway, only express buses in the night so the understand quickly, that you are looking for a ride in a car on the highway. Also the feeling is very special. It might be like Germany in the early fifties. You have a very new, big and fast road, but there are almost no cars on it. Maybe 10 cars per hour, which is not much for a toll road (the drivers pay about USD 7 from Mandalay to Yangon). At the moment there are still people around the highway planting trees, or fixing some road borders and sometimes you might see some kids which are flying a kite in the middle of the road. Awesome. This would never be possible on the crammed European highways.
MIN-ga-la-baa = Hello CHAY-zu-baa = Thank you Myoot = City/Township Toe gate = Tollgate
Some things that might be important before entering the country:
- There's an e-visa you can apply for online (January 2020). You'll get a maximum stay of 28 days and it costs US$50. Mind of a Hitchhiker and partner got their e-visas within 2 working days. You'll need to print this out.
- There are now ATMs in Myanmar. All major cities have them and all accept visa/MasterCard. Money is given is local currency not USD and you are charged anything from USD 2 to USD 15 for using the machine. Paying by card is possible in high end hotels (with a 3% surcharge), but not on the street so make sure that you have enough cash on you for daily spending. Also make sure to spend/exchange all your Kyat before you leave Myanmar as it's not a currency that's easy to exchange.
- In general you should know that a lot of information about travelling in Myanmar is wrong, because things are changing so fast. This addresses the USD 300 you have to show at the airport (wrong!), the USD 10 airport tax (included in AirAsia tickets since August 2011), the interview in the visa process (getting a visa in Bangkok is straightforward, fast and very easy) and many other information you will find. As a tourist they will not make your life difficult with absurd rules.
- If you take much money with you, be relaxed. Myanmar is a pretty safe country. Although every tourist is carrying a lot of money around with them, only few people get ripped of. It might be because the people are so nice (see below "people") or because you will not be allowed to enter assumed dangerous areas (see below "travel restrictions").
- Generally the people won't cheat you. Cheating is a new thing to them, but this is changing as well, especially when it comes to changing money in the street. Never do it! Not even if it's Sunday, the banks are closed and you need money for the hostel. Find another solution, because the guys in the street are only there to cheat you. They won't change your money!
- Cars and buses are very old (because of the embargo), stinky and slow. The traffic is not so much, but in the cities the air might be more polluted as in Bangkok during the rush hours. Sometimes you find yourself while hitchhiking beside the street surrounded by a black smoke cloud, or you sit in the back of a truck and it is a bit annoying to breath the delicious exhaust fumes that pass through you. You can wear a facemask in cities and in the back of pickup trucks to prevent yourself inhaling that stuff. It's totally normal to wear a facemask in public.
Update February 2013: Still same price range of the 'licensed hotels', BUT! In rural areas the locals are usually so confused and surprised to see you that they obviously don't care about any license and check you into any guest-house for a local price (2000 kyats), although they will try to show you the fancier rooms first. They also get freaked out when you try to camp on the beach or outside of the village.
Some places that are popular pilgrimage sites (Kyaiktiyo - the Golden Rock Pagoda) have free accommodation. Check out Sea Sar restaurant/hotel. They allow you to sleep on bamboo mats in the restaurant hall for free. Showers are available for 200 kyats across the road. Their food is lovely too.
Myanmar is one of the cheapest countries in SEA. If you go for street food, you can get a full dinner (several dishes + soup) for less than 1 USD. The cheapest rooms in a guest house cost about 8 USD. Be careful with money exchange, don't make a deal with people that offer you exchange on the street. In Yangon the gem market is a good place with fair and stable exchange rates.
You will need Dollars for accommodation if you are staying in high end hotels; small local places will accept Just at the rate of 1000 to 1USD (in 2015). Kyat is the currency for the street. So take with you both currencies and don't exchange everything (otherwise you will become a real money trader, without making profit, but loosing a lot). Also most of the people will not accept your dollars if there is something written on, if they have a wrinkle, or let's say if they don't look brand new (I didn't get this). Also the local prices for accommodation are about USD 3 (2000 Kyat), but foreigners are only allowed to stay in guest-houses that have permission and those are often much more expensive.
In Myanmar are a lot of black zones where nobody (even the locals) is allowed to go, then there are some areas where you need a special permission, and the rest of the country. It is not possible to enter these areas by accident. There are control points, often at bridges and if you don't have permission, they will send you back. The centre of the country is free to move around. At the border states are a lot of conflicts (north, south-east and west are rebels, there is some oil and gem production and in the east [Shan state] they also grow a lot of heroin for export to India).
It is very obvious that the government is keeping track about your travels. Every guest-house has to report which guests they had and even if you stay in a small village you need to register with the local police guy. It is almost impossible to stay with locals, because they need a permit. A few years ago it might have been allowed to stay one night in a monastery, but also that is not possible any more since the protests in Yangon in 2008. Some locals say that there are many new (unclear) rules and nobody wants to get in trouble. Be careful that you don't push people to help you and put them in danger. Also don't be surprised if you stay during the day with some monks somewhere and the local police officer is coming around to ask some question. As the locals told me, it is just their job nothing important, they have to report what are you doing, but in general there will be no problem, if you don't stay overnight.
EDIT 2019: It seems to be really difficult to stay with locals overnight. Even though most of them are super friendly, the restrictions from the government still seem to be a big thing. Also keep in mind that in the worst case not only could you end up being questioned by the police or local authorities but also you might put the locals in danger. Same holds for temples. That being said, if you can make sure to not be caught, you'll have a great time!
I don't want to write much about this point, because you can find a lot of information about this but I think it is almost impossible to get an objective overview about what is going on politically in this country. Also I don't think it is worth focussing too much on political issues, because they are not as important as people (mostly from outside) make them.
The politics in Myanmar are changing like the exchange rate. Since the old general is retired (April 2011) the whole situation became a bit more "relaxed" (like the Burmese would say). Aung San Suu Kyi (she won the elections 1990 and called the tourist boycott) is released and in dialogue with the new government. Some say this is just propaganda. We don't know. You will not come in contact with the government, only if some policemen want to shake your hand and say hello. Most of the locals are willing to share their thoughts about the political situation but often there is a language barrier so they just can express that they think their government is bad.
Visit Myanmar, go there, and don't do it not because of the political situation, but rather do it because of the people! They are very welcome to every foreigner and they are very happy to get opportunities to practise English. At the moment there is a big lack of English teachers and everyone wants to learn English and practise. Also be aware that the people are honestly interested in you. It is completely different to India, Thailand, or Cambodia. If they start talking to you it happens rarely that they also want to sell you something. In Myanmar some kind of giving culture. For example: If you ask for a card they might take you around and search the right shop and at the moment when they order the card (and usually you will think now he wants some money for his service) they will not allow you to pay, but give the card to you as a present. Also when you are hitchhiking and you explain to them that you don't have money, there will be a lot of people that offer you to pay for the bus for you. It is much easier to get around with paid buses than with cars that stop, haha. In general this is very nice, but also be aware. They give what they have even if they have nothing. Be prepared to make people understand not to pay for your transport and carry some small and useful things with you to make presents to nice people also. Sharing is caring!
For all that are interested in meditation, Myanmar has a lot of meditation centres and a lot of high teachings of meditation techniques. If you want to stay for a longer time you need a meditation visa. If you don't have this kind of visa, it might be hard to find centres where you can stay. Dhamma Joti (Vipassana meditation taught by Goenka) in Yangon can take foreigners for 10 day retreats (with English lectures) without meditation visa, also in Sagaing you might find a place where you can practise. in Pa-Auk forest and in another city in the north are centres where you can learn Pa Auk techniques, which is (like the Burmese say) the highest teaching in their country. Don't go to places where you have to pay a shitload of money, those are not real. If you go deeper in this business you will find out how incredibly rich this country is.
When applying for the Myanma e-visa, the government provides you a list of valid crossings for foreigners. This list includes all international airports like Mandalay, Naypyitaw, and Yangon and a handful of land borders. You'll need to provide them with your intended entry border and exit border. It's not clear what the consequences are of using a different entry/exit border than the one you announced when applying for your e-visa.
Mandalay: Mind of a Hitchhiker and partner (Dutch and German passport) used this airport to enter Myanmar in January 2020 coming from Chiang Mai (Thailand). We had e-visas printed out and the process was very fast and smooth. No questions asked and no intimidation. We didn't hitchhike the 40 kilometers from the airport to the city because it was already nighttime and took a taxi instead. (feel free to add entry/exit info)
Naypyitaw: (feel free to add info)
Yangon: (feel free to add info)
Borders with Thailand
There are lots of land borders between Myanmar and Thailand, but they're often not allowed to be used by foreigners. It's not clear whether that also means that Thai citizens can't cross into Myanmar.
Tachileik (Myanmar) - Mae Sai (Thailand): popular with visa runs. Foreigners can't travel overland from Tachileik to other places in the country due to travel restrictions. (January 2020)
Myawaddy (Myanmar) - Mae Sot (Thailand): the biggest border between the two countries and also popular with visa runners.
Kawthaung (Myanmar) - Ranong (Thailand): a river/sea border. You'll need to charter a (shared) longtail boat here. Mind of a Hitchhiker and partner used this border to exit Myanmar in January 2020. It was very hectic.
Borders with Laos
(someone please add info)
Borders with India
As of 2014 it seems possible to cross the border from Myanmar to India at Tamu - Moreh, at a cost of $50 - $100 for a permit (depending which agency you arrange the permit with) You will need: Copy of passport and Myanmar visa; copy of Indian visa (when applying avoid mentioning you are crossing by land). It is possible and easy to get Indian visa in Yangon, as of March 2015 no plane or hotel bookings were required; Itinerary: just a list of cities to be visited along the way to the border (choose the most touristic destinations); Fee ($50 - $100 per person, just depending on the agency you choose) Officially it takes 15 - 20 days to obtain the permit, but it could be less (like 10 days). There is no need to collect the permit in person, the agency sends a scanned version by email and one can simply print it out.
You can read more about it here... India/Myanmar border 2014
EDIT 2019 seems that crossing the Myanmar-India border no longer requires a permit (since 2018) and there is no more restrictions about having to exit the country from the same crossing point as you entered. Check yourself to be sure! Crossing Bangladesh and China borders still seems to not be possible for foreigners. borderhttps://www.go-myanmar.com/arriving-and-departing-over-land
Borders with China
It is apparently possible to cross the Myanmar China border at Ruili. The process should be similar to crossing the Indian border: copy of passport, valid visas, and a permit. An agency confirmed it to RovingSnails in May 2015.
Borders with Bangladesh
The land/sea borders with Bangladesh are closed for foreigners in (February 2020). The border might even be closed for Myanma and Bangla nationals as well.
Mind of a Hitchhiker traveled from Mandalay to Kawthaung over 28 days in January 2020 with partner. The waits were usually not very long because we always got out of the zones with lots of foot traffic. We always used hitchhiking signs written in Myanma script to tell people where we were going. It was very easy and no one ever expected payment—not even on the toll roads. The people were amazing and super friendly, but the police were often confused as to why there were foreigners riding along with locals. The cops sometimes made a fuss, but they always let us travel on. I blogged about every single hitchhiking day and added our hitchhiking spots to the maps. We did: Nyaung-U (Old Bagan) to Naypyitaw, Naypyitaw to Yangon, Mawlamyine to Dawei, Dawei to Myeik, and Myeik to Bokpyin to Kawthaung.
- Experiences hitchhiking in Myanmar in January 2020 with other Myanmar-related articles in English. Iris and Jonas stayed in Myanmar for 28 days and hitchhiked 1585 kilometers north to south with 9 vehicles, while also working online from the hotels.
- Information, tips and personal experiences of hitch-hiking in Myanmar. A 1545 km journey on 33 vehicles (only in Spanish), by Marcando el Polo.
- How to cross from Myanmar to India overland at Tamu - Moreh Bureaucracy and tips by RovingSnails