Shoulder

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Ireland: dashed yellow lines demarcate hard shoulders on non-motorways as can be seen along this dual carriageway on the N11, south of Newtownmountkennedy.

A shoulder (or a hard shoulder) is a reserved area by the verge of a road or motorway. Generally it is kept clear of all traffic. In the event of an emergency or breakdown, a motorist can pull into the hard shoulder to get out of the flow of traffic and obtain an element of safety. A hard shoulder also allows some extra flexibility should a motorist need to take evasive action, as it is a buffer area between the main thoroughfare and the edge of the road. Emergency vehicles such as ambulances and police cars may also use the shoulder to bypass traffic congestion. These uses lead to the alternative names breakdown lane and emergency lane.

If it is a non-motorway shoulder (i.e., legal to stand on), it can be a good spot to hitch a ride.

See also:

wikipedia:Shoulder (road)